Torsion springs resist externally applied twisting motion (torque) or maintain a constant force on a load.
Most of the time, round wire is used, but square, rectangular, or special-section wire can also be utilized.
These types of springs come in many variations of coil windings, leg configurations, and end types. Specifications normally require tight angular relationship tolerances and intricate leg designs.
Torsion springs are usually close-wound with a small coil diameter. The body length increases as they are deflected. Friction within the coil(s) must be taken into account when designing torsion springs since it will contribute to the force requirements.
Special types of torsion springs include double torsion springs and springs having a space between the coils to minimize friction.
Double torsion springs consist of one right-hand and one left-hand coil section connected together and working in parallel. The total force exerted is the sum of the two separate coils. Double torsion springs are designed to resist motion in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions.
As with other spring types, special packaging can be designed to accommodate more efficient production line usage.
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